Brief History and Overview:

The United States of America is a democratic Republic established in the year 1776. It is the first major European colony to gain independence. The United States declared independence from the British crown, on the 4th of July 1776.The independence was ratified by the British crown on 3rd September 1783 in Paris, and is known as the Treaty of Paris. At the time of independence, their were thirteen States, and the country was called The United Colonies of America. The name was subsequently changed to The United States of America. Mr George Washington was the first President of the United States, who took oath in the year, 1788. Between 1776 and the late nineteenth century, the US expanded from 13 States to the current fifty States. Some regions have become a part of the United States in early twentieth century.

After the first word war, the US emerged as a strong global power. After the second world war, it emerged as one of the two super powers in the world, along with the former Soviet Union. America is the first country to have developed a nuclear weapon and the only country to have used it, in a war. The 1945, bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, ended the second world war. The era between 1945 and 1990 was marked with growing tensions between the US and the Soviet Union for global supremacy and control. The era is marked by increased spending on development and deployment of nuclear weapons and the race for space research and advances in rocket science and satellite deployment.

The United States is a founding member of the United Nations. It is also the first country to send a man to the moon. Since the nineteen fifties, America has surfaced as global economic super power. It has been the largest economy in the world for several decades, and has the third largest population in the world. The United States is made up of fifty States, which include the territories of Hawaii and similar Pacific and Atlantic islands. The current population of the US is 327 million people. It’s GDP in the year 2018 was about 21 trillion dollars. The per capita GDP in the same year was $ 62,618. It ranks very high according to the Human Development Index. The HDI in 2018 was 0.924, which ranks it among the most developed countries, as per HDI. The gini coefficient, which is a measure of equality or inequality, stands at 0.39,which is slightly higher than the most equitable countries, but much better than countries like China and India.


The US accounts for 4.4% of the world population, but has a 41.6% share in global wealth. The top ten per cent of the US population, hold seventy two percent of the national household wealth. The bottom ten percent of the population, own only two percent of national household wealth. 12.7% of the US population lives below the poverty line, as of the year 2015. The Income of the bottom twenty percent of the population has reduced by almost twenty percent since 1998. The Income of the next twenty percent of the population has reduced by fifty percent since 1998. The Income of the middle twenty per cent of the population has reduced by twenty per cent since 1998 while the Income of the top ten per cent of the population has increased by seventy five percent since 1998.

America’s public debt amounts to 21.85 trillion dollars and the total household net worth is 109 trillion dollars. The total government debt amounted to 88% of GDP in 2017, year-end. The total household debt amounted to 80% of GDP, and total private debt stood to 202% of GDP in the same year. External Debt was 97.6% of GDP in 2017. It is the most indebted country in the world.

The current unemployment rate is around 3.5% of the population, and the employment to population ratio was 60.8% in 2018. Agriculture accounted for 0.9% of GDP in 2017; Industry accounted for 19.1% while Services accounted for 80% of GDP in 2017. CPI inflation was over 2% in 2018. Growth in Industrial Production was 2.3% in 2017. Private Consumption accounted for 68% of the population in 2017. Public Consumption and Investment accounted for 13.9% and 20.8% of GDP in 2017. Fiscal Deficit was 3.5% of GDP in 2017 while the Current Account Deficit was 2.5% of GDP.
The US Federal Reserve is America’s central bank and regulates the monetary policy. The country has faced intense competition from China in recent years. Other countries which compete with the US, for the global share of industrial and service related revenue are, UK, Germany, France, Japan and Italy. The US is the world’s largest producer, consumer, and importer of crude oil. It’s major trading partners are, Germany, Japan, the UK, China and Canada. The United States is the largest spender on primary and secondary education, among all countries. It accounts for twenty five percent of the world GDP and is the largest importer of goods and services in the world. It is also the second largest exporter of goods in the world. The United States defence budget is the largest in the world. It accounts for forty percent of global defence spending.


Mr Donald Trump is the 45th and current President of the US, Mr Mile Pence is the Vice President and Ms Nancy Pelosi is the speaker of the House. The US Congress is divided into the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate comprises of 100 members with a six years tenure, and the House of Representatives has 435 members with a two years tenure. The capital city is Washington DC, and the largest city is New York.

Important Companies:

The US is a store house of wealth and power. American companies occupy a special place in global trade and popularity among consumers. Some of the leading banks, and technology companies are from the US. This list includes, J P Morgan, Wells Fargo, Citibank, Apple, Microsoft, Alphabet, Facebook, Netflix, Amazon, and Oracle, among several others. All the leading Credit Card brands in the world are also from America. Boeing is one of the two major, airline manufacturers in the world, along with Airbus from the Eurozone. American companies are also among the top defence equipment manufacturers in the world. Leading automobile brands from the US include, Ford and General Motors.

Stock Exchanges:

There are thirteen stock exchanges in the US.
1. New York Stock Exchange. Owns three exchanges.
2. NASDAQ. Owns three exchanges.
3. BATS Global Markets. Owns four exchanges.
4. Chicago Stock Exchange.
5. National Stock Exchange.
6. IEX.

Important Indices:

There are four important stock market indices in the US.
1. Dow Jones Industrial Average.
2. NASDAQ composite.
3. S&P 500.
4. Wilshire 5000.

Some of the other relevant indices include.
1. S&P 100.
2. S&P 400.
3. Russell 1000.
4. Russell 2000.

Companies and Market Capitalization:

There are about 6500 companies registered on various stock exchanges in the US. The total market capitalization of the NYSE is 23.4 trillion US dollars. There are 2400 listings on the NYSE. The total market capitalization of the Nasdaq is 10 trillion US dollars. The number of listings on the Nasdaq is 3400. The total market capitalization of all the companies in the US is about 34 trillion US dollars. This accounts for over 40% of the global market capitalization.

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